Cryocooling Publications

The Development of CryoTel™ DS2.1 High Reliability Split Cryocooler
Y. Kim, J. Wade, R. K. Wilson (2015) The popular CryoTel DS1.5 has been upgraded for higher performance applications.  Same size, mass and reliability with an additional 0.6 Watt output.

The Development of CryoTel™ DT Cryocooler
S. Kim, E. Holliday, R. Unger, R. Wiseman (2012) A Small split-type Stirling cryocooler, CryoTel™ DT, has been developed for small and portable systems, where small size, light weight and low vibration signature become important.

New Sunpower CryoTel™ DT Cryocooler
S. Kim, R. Unger, R. WIseman (2012) The CryoTel™ DT, a small split-type Stirling cryocooler driven by a dual-opposed wave generator, has been newly developed and added to Sunpower’s commercial product line-up.

Sunpower Cryotel™ Cryocoolers and Pulse Tube Cryocoolers
Douglas E. Keiter, Reuven Z. Unger, Kyle B. Wilson (2005) Overview, configuration, projected life and reliability, and Sunpower’s manufacturing capabilities of CryoTel™ family of cryocoolers and pulse tube development.

Design and Qualification of the AMS-02 Flight Cryocoolers
Kimberly Shirey, Stuart Banks, Rob Boyle, Reuven Unger (2005) Design of Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-02 (AMS-02), function of Sunpower M87N Cryocooler in AMS-02, and results of initial qualification tests for M87N.

Status of Pulse Tube Cryocooler Development at Sunpower, Inc.
K.B. Wilson, D.R. Gedeon (2004) Development history of pulse tube technology, status of the single-stage pulse tube cryocooler, and results of the three-stage pulse tube cryocooler development program.

High Efficiency Pressure Oscillator for Low-temperature Pulse Tube Cryocooler
Kyle B. Wilson, Reuven Z. Unger (2004) Design, construction and testing of a Sunpower’s pressure wave generator (PWG) for a three-stage pulse tube cryocooler linear-pressure-oscillator driven pulse tube cryocooler.

Free Piston Stirling Machine Commercialization Status at Sunpower
Neill W. Lane, J. Gary Wood, Reuven Z. Unger (2003) Description of development status, marketing strategies, and competitive advantages of Stirling engines, Stirling cryocoolers and pulse tubes.

Sunpower Cooling Solutions
Douglas E. Keiter, Kyle B. Wilson (2003) Overview and thermodynamic performance of Sunpower cooling solutions: M77, M87, CryoTelCT, CryoTelMT, and Pulse Tube.

Development of Single and Two-Stage Pulse Tube Cryocoolers with Commercial Linear Compressor
K.B. Wilson, D.R. Gedeon (2002) Analysis of marketability through energy efficiency testing and cost comparison with the Sunpower M87 Stirling cryocooler.

The Advent of Low Cost Cryocoolers
Unger, R.Z., Wiseman, R.B. and Hummon, M.R. (2000) A new cryocooler model, M87, and development of a manufacturing facility for commercial production.

Performance Comparison of M77 Stirling Cryocooler and Proposed Pulse Tube Cryocooler
Unger, R.Z., Wood, J.G. (1999) Comparison of the performance of an existing Sunpower free-piston Stirling cryocooler with the simulated performance of a proposed pulse-tube cryocooler using the same linear compressor.

Low-cost Small Cryocoolers for Commercial Applications
Karandikar, A.; Berchowitz, D. (1995) Performance data from the Model M77 and the Model M223 Stirling coolers.

Performance Characterization of the Sunpower Cryocooler
Smedley, G.T.; Ross, R.G., Jr.; Berchowitz, D.M. (1994) Comparison of the performance of an existing Sunpower free-piston Stirling cryocooler with the simulated performance of a proposed pulse-tube cryocooler using the same linear compressor.

Miniature Stirling Coolers
Berchowitz, D.M. (1993) Active cooling of electronic components by free-piston Stirling coolers.